[Approved] Carpentry

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[Approved] Carpentry

Postby Faith » Wed Dec 13, 2017 1:02 pm

Name: Woodworking

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The art of working with wood to create decorative and / or functional items. Woodworkers shape and decorate wood for a variety of uses, from house building to creating furniture or wooden sculptures. Those with the Woodworking skill are able to craft items of beauty or usefulness. Truly, this is a skill which can be seen in every home in Idalos. Woodworking is a general term for the use of wood cutting, shaping and carving techniques in practical applications. This might be furniture making, house building or construction of a ship. Whereas many of the same techniques are common across all types of Woodworking, there are specific techniques involved.


Types of Wood:

There are two main types of wood. It should be noted that the type of wood is determined by characteristics of the tree. Although they are named such, hardwoods can be soft and softwoods can be hard.

Hardwood: Hardwood is produced by deciduous trees with broad leaves. Hardwood trees have flowers and produce nuts. Examples include oak and mahogany.

Softwood: Softwood is produced by coniferous trees with needle leaves. Softwood trees are evergreen and are cone bearing trees. Examples include pine and cedar.

Although these two types of wood are broadly used as categories, there are a vast array of wood types. Just as each tree type is totally different one from another, so too are different woods. For example, ash and beech are both hardwoods, but whilst ash is open-grained and flexible, beech is closed-grained and prone to warping.


Preparation:

Cutting: The first thing to do is to cut the wood into the requisite number of pieces, each one being larger than needed although approximately the correct size. The adage 'measure twice, cut once' applies here as mistakes in this part of the process result in wasted wood. Each piece, if there are a number of them, will be named or numbered in order to make the later aspects of the job easier.

Sanding: Sanding wood at the beginning of task can help make it easier overall. This is also carried out at the end of a project or job. Sanding is the act of rubbing a sanding block or another suitable abrasive against wood to smooth it out. Sanding blocks comes in a variety of grades, varying from course to very fine in texture. Once the wood is cut to size, a coarse sanding is often used in order to smooth off rough edges and imperfections, fundamentally making the wood easier to work with.


Technique:

Joints & Joining: The art and technique of joining two, or more, pieces of wood together. There are of many types of join including, but not limited to:
  • The Butt Joint: The most basic join possible, this involves putting the end of one piece of wood against the edge of another, usually at a right angle. To make it a bit more stable, a mitered butt joint might be used, where both edges of wood to be joined are mitered (cut and sanded into an angle) in order to make an angled join.
  • The Half-Lap Joint: Where two pieces of wood will be 'crossing over' each other, a section can be cut out of each piece so that the two sit flush together. Whilst the individual pieces of wood are obviously weakened by the removal of a section, the overall join is quite strong and can look very attractive.
  • The Mortise and Tenon Joint:A join used when the two pieces are connecting at an angle of 90 degrees. This involves one piece having the mortise hole and the other having the tenon tongue. These are usually deep rectangular shapes and fit snugly together, the aim being that the tenon is completely flush in the mortise.
  • The Tongue & Groove Joint: Often used in flooring and where plank-shaped pieces of wood are joined together, this join creates a flat surface. One piece has an indented "groove" in it, with the other having a matching ridge known as the "tongue"
  • Dovetailing: The dovetail join involves two pieces fitting together by a number of "pins and tails" slotting together like a jigsaw. This is a very strong join and can also be very attractive if done well
  • Dowels: Woodworkers will often use dowels to strengthen their joins. A dowel is a small cylinder of wood which fits into a hole in both pieces of wood. With the dowel half-embedded in each piece, it strengthens the join and negates any wobbling etc

Finished Product: Joinery is used wherever two pieces of wood are placed together. So, the finished product might be shelves, cabinets, boxes etc. Any finished product which is made from more than one piece of wood has used joinery.

Carving & Whittling: Cutting wood into shapes, often used to create wooden sculptures, ornaments and so on, crafted with a cutting tool. This might be a knife in one hand, a chisel in one or two hands, a chisel in one hand with a mallet in the other or a gouge. When done with a knife this is known as whittling wood, whereas done with a chisel, gouge or chisel + mallet, this is wood carving. These techniques are used to create sculptures, bowls, vases etc. The carving techniques are also used to create engravings on wood by gouging or chiseling out section to create relief patterns on the surface of wood.

Finished Product: Ornaments, wood sculptures or engravings on existing pieces of wood.

Wood Turning: This uses a piece of wood held on to a lathe. Tools are then used to cut that piece of wood in a rounded shape. This is used to create curved pieces, from chair legs to knitting needles and candlesticks. Wood turning can produce very detailed, exquisite results when precision tools are used, or can be used for large, impact pieces.

Finished Product: Candlesticks, tool or cutlery handles, bowls etc.


Equipment & Tools:

The tools and equipment of a Woodworker's Kit and / or Woodworker's Kit have everything needed for the character with this skill. For some, a small sharp knife and a piece of wood is all they need, others will require clamps and lathes. It is important that the character considers safety, as the tools for those with this skill are often very sharp. Leather or metal thimbles, protective gloves and so on might well be the order of the trial.


Finishing:

Sanding: Much more detailed and intricate than at the preparation stage, sanding as a finish means that the piece is even, smooth and pleasant to the touch. Sanding blocks are used, again starting with a coarse block and then moving on to increasingly finer pieces. It should leave the finished product even, without any variations in the feel of the piece and also make sure that there are no splinters or pieces which might catch. The detail and effort put into sanding at the end of a Woodworking project can mean the difference between good and great quality.

Varnishing / Sealing : One of the major problems with Woodworking is that wood is vulnerable to the elements. Therefore, almost all pieces are finished with either varnish or sealant. Varnish adds colour and sheen, whereas sealant works simply to protect the wood. The creation of varnishes and sealants is undertaken by a chemist, but most woodworkers will have a preference for type or colour. Varnishes range from very thick to a light colour wash. Sealant is usually clear and provides basic protection against the elements ~ and might be applied over a varnish if the woodworker thinks it is necessary.


Related Skills:

Woodworking is related to a number of skills and works to enhance them. Examples of skills enhanced by Woodworking include: fletching, ship building, and construction. A character with the Woodworking skill might find their abilities enhanced by the following, depending on how they use it.

Mathematics: ~ working out angles, joints and how to best fit pieces of wood together can be made easier and more accurate by the use of mathematics.

Drawing: ~ those who engrave wood might find that the pattern used is more aesthetically pleasing if the character has a high drawing skill.

Design: - depending on what the woodworker is planning, being able to design effectively is a vital skill. Therefore, Design: Interior Design or Design: Architecture are often complimentary skills to Woodworking.



Novice: 0-25
The novice woodworker is learning the tools of the trade, the types of Woodworking and the techniques in each one. They might well spend a lot of time on preparation and finishing, learning to be precise in measuring and cutting alongside how to sand and varnish. Once they have developed a good understanding of the types of wood, they start making basic pieces to develop each of the techniques. In Woodworking, the techniques themselves take time to learn but a novice is capable of learning them all if they put in the time. The difference between a novice and a master lies in the application of the knowledge. Items made by a novice woodworker tend to be very simple. If the item is ornamental, it will look amateurish and if it is functional then it will be able to perform no more than its most basic function. There may well still be imperfections in the finished product, from slight bumps and dents to ill-fitting joints etc. At novice, the woodworker will not be able to combine techniques, needing to focus on one thing at a time.

Competent: 26-49
Competence in Woodworking comes with the attention to detail which the novice lacked. At this level of experience, the woodworker’s focus is on functionality and the character can produce pieces which are easily usable and meet expectations. Therefore, an ornamental object produced at this level will look as it should, though without any surprises or much originality, and a functional object such as a box will be made to fit everything exactly as it should. The competent woodworker is now able to combine techniques and can, for example, produce an engraved bowl. At this level, the woodworker will still produce their best work when focusing on one or two techniques. Introducing more techniques to the process increases the risk of the end product being less than satisfactory.

Expert: 50-75
An expert woodworker is someone who can produce pieces which combine techniques to very good effect. They are able to produce items which exceed expectation. Thus, an ornamental piece of sculpture is beautiful and obviously well=crafted and a functional piece is not merely easily usable but also efficient; a tool handle will be well-fitting and balanced with the tool head, for instance. Decorative touches at this level are very nice and can be intricate or simple in their layout.

Master: 76-100
At mastery, the woodworker is able to produce wonders with wood. Techniques are combined to create complex or simple pieces which are way beyond expectations and standards are incredibly high. Items made by a master woodworker are more durable and even functional items are things of beauty. The master woodworker has truly learned how to utilise all techniques to their utmost, combining them in a finished product which is exquisitely beautiful, efficient and the pinnacle of the art.

Credit: Faith
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Carpentry

Postby Faith » Thu Dec 21, 2017 9:43 am

Ok - first draft finished. Comments welcomed, please!
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Carpentry

Postby Rose Greenwood » Tue Jan 23, 2018 2:33 pm

I really like the way you have broken down this skill. It’s concise and easy to understand. At first I was a little confused by the terms in the Joining section, but once I read the entire section I was better able to understand what was being discussed. The information is there, so there really needs to be no changes, but maybe you could provide a terminology index for quick access prior to the paragraph. Terms like Mortise and Tenon were a touch confusing until I finished reading. Totally up to you on this one. It works fine as is.
There are only a few sentences that may need a little work, but other than that I think you have done a fantastic job.

Possible sentence fixes – Feel free to ignore

“Although these two types of wood are broadly used as categories, just as each tree type is totally different from another, so too are different wood types”


Maybe try:
“These two categories are very broad, allowing for a vast array of wood variation depending on the species of tree and the condition of the tree itself. “

-This could be reworded any way you like if you prefer something else.




“Sanding is the act of rubbing sandpaper against the wood to smooth it out ~ sandpaper can be very coarse to very fine.”


Maybe try:
“Sanding is the act of rubbing sandpaper or another suitable abrasive against wood to smooth it out. Sandpaper comes in a variety of grades, varying from course to very fine in texture.”

-This can also be reworded if you prefer something other than my suggestion *shrug*



That's about all I can say about this write-up. It's looking great!
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Carpentry

Postby Faith » Tue Feb 13, 2018 10:42 am

Edits made - thank you!

I haven't gone with a list of terms, just because there will be soooo many (most of which I don't know IRL!) and not doing so allows for Idalos-specific ones, for example?

Thanks for the feedback!
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Carpentry

Postby Rumour » Fri Feb 16, 2018 4:45 pm

Hi Faith,

Another excellent skill write-up! I really, really enjoyed this one. I thought it was useful, straight-forward, and something that can be easily applied in-character. Beautiful image choice, as well! As always, I have a few comments and suggestions, but they should be fairly quick fixes. I look forward to seeing this go live!

    1. I’ve identified some spelling/grammar errors:

    Also carried out at the end of a project or job, sanding wood at the beginning of task can help make it easier overall.” > “Sanding wood at the beginning of task can help make it easier overall. This is also carried out at the end of a project or job.

    “Where two piece of wood” > “Where two pieces of wood”

    “so that the two fit together flush with one another” > “so that the two sit flush together

    “The carving techniques are also used to create engravings on wood, gouging or chiseling out section to create relief patterns on the surface of wood.” > “The carving techniques are also used to create engravings on wood by gouging or chiseling out sections to create relief patterns on the surface of wood.”

    2. I do want to call out that sandpaper as we know in our modern age may not be available in Idalos. The Price List identifies “sanding blocks,” which sounds like it would be a good substitute for the term “sandpaper” in your write-up.

    3. You’ve referred to the lathe quite a bit in your write-up. Please go ahead and submit it to the Price List Suggestions thread so that we can add it to the Price List! (An update which will no doubt be my next project.)

    4. You’ve referred to varnishing and sealing wood as part of the Finishing steps. Would you be able to provide some examples of a type of sealant that could be made within Idalos? Are you thinking natural sealants or chemical sealants? If chemical, what type of materials would you expect a chemist to use?

    5. In the Related Skills section, Design in the Interior and/or Architecture discipline would be another good skill to include.

    6. “In carpentry, there are not advanced and basic techniques, a novice carpenter knows all the techniques a master does, it is in the application that the difference lies. Items made by a novice carpenter are likely to be basic in the extreme. If the item created is ornamental, it will look amateurish and if it is functional it will be only at a very basic level.”

    I’ve provided some suggested rewording to make this piece of the write-up a bit more clear: “In carpentry, the techniques themselves take time to learn but a novice is capable of learning them all if they put in the time. The difference between a novice and a master lies in the application of the knowledge. Items made by a novice carpenter tend to be very simple. If the item is ornamental, it will look amateurish and if it is functional then it will be able to perform no more than its most basic function.”

    7. “Competence in carpentry comes with the attention to detail which the novice lacked. At this level of experience, the focus is on functionality and the character can produce pieces which do what they are supposed to, to a competent level. Therefore, an ornament or sculpture produced at this level will be acceptable, whereas a functional object such as a box will be snug with everything fitting exactly where it should. The competent carpenter is able to combine techniques, so is able to produce an engraved bowl for example. However, at this level, they will produce their best work, still, when focusing on one or two techniques.”

    I’ve also provided some proposed rewording for the Competent section of the write-up to make it a bit more clear. “Competence in carpentry comes with the attention to detail which the novice lacked. At this level of experience, the carpenter’s focus is on functionality and the character can produce pieces which are easily usable and meet expectations. Therefore, an ornamental object produced at this level will look as it should, though without any surprises or much originality, and a functional object such as a box will be made to fit everything exactly as it should. The competent carpenter is now able to combine techniques and can, for example, produce an engraved bowl. At this level, the carpenter will still produce their best work when focusing on one or two techniques. Introducing more techniques to the process increases the risk of the end product being less than satisfactory.”

    8. “They are able to produce items which exceed the basic expectations. Thus, an ornamental piece of sculpture is beautiful and obviously well crafted and a functional piece is not just competent but is now efficient;”

    A final rewording proposal for the Expert section of the write-up. “They are able to produce items which exceed expectation. Thus, an ornamental piece of sculpture is beautiful and obviously well=crafted and a functional piece is not merely easily usable but also efficient;”
Please let me know if you have any questions or concerns about any of these comments.

Thanks!
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Carpentry

Postby Faith » Fri Feb 16, 2018 9:49 pm

Hi Rumour!

I know I always say thank you - but really - thank you SO much. Your reviews / comments are so thoughtful and considered and your enthusiasm is just such a boost. So, thank you. Really, really.

    1. I’ve identified some spelling/grammar errors:
    All done!

    2. I do want to call out that sandpaper as we know in our modern age may not be available in Idalos. The Price List identifies “sanding blocks,” which sounds like it would be a good substitute for the term “sandpaper” in your write-up.
    Done!

    3. You’ve referred to the lathe quite a bit in your write-up. Please go ahead and submit it to the Price List Suggestions thread so that we can add it to the Price List! (An update which will no doubt be my next project.)

    Done. here tis!

    4. You’ve referred to varnishing and sealing wood as part of the Finishing steps. Would you be able to provide some examples of a type of sealant that could be made within Idalos? Are you thinking natural sealants or chemical sealants? If chemical, what type of materials would you expect a chemist to use?

    Well, I looked on the price list for this - and there are no housepaints etc. Even in the artist's kit, there isn't anything with which to prepare the canvas etc. Unless I'm looking in the wrong place, I figured since there were none, that might be a whole new project? Paints, varnishes, gloss, matt, emulsion, creosote, interior and exterior paint etc etc. What would you like me to do there? I'm happy with anything.. maybe except being in charge of Project Paints.

    5. In the Related Skills section, Design in the Interior and/or Architecture discipline would be another good skill to include.

    Done!

    6. I’ve provided some suggested rewording to make this piece of the write-up a bit more clear: “In carpentry, the techniques themselves take time to learn but a novice is capable of learning them all if they put in the time. The difference between a novice and a master lies in the application of the knowledge. Items made by a novice carpenter tend to be very simple. If the item is ornamental, it will look amateurish and if it is functional then it will be able to perform no more than its most basic function.”

    Done!

    7. I’ve also provided some proposed rewording for the Competent section of the write-up to make it a bit more clear. “Competence in carpentry comes with the attention to detail which the novice lacked. At this level of experience, the carpenter’s focus is on functionality and the character can produce pieces which are easily usable and meet expectations. Therefore, an ornamental object produced at this level will look as it should, though without any surprises or much originality, and a functional object such as a box will be made to fit everything exactly as it should. The competent carpenter is now able to combine techniques and can, for example, produce an engraved bowl. At this level, the carpenter will still produce their best work when focusing on one or two techniques. Introducing more techniques to the process increases the risk of the end product being less than satisfactory.”

    Done! :)

    8. A final rewording proposal for the Expert section of the write-up. “They are able to produce items which exceed expectation. Thus, an ornamental piece of sculpture is beautiful and obviously well=crafted and a functional piece is not merely easily usable but also efficient;”

    And done!

Hope that all works? Sorry for the Great Paint Debate of 718. :P And thank you, once again.
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Postby Rumour » Fri Feb 16, 2018 10:26 pm

Congratulations on becoming in charge of Project Paint! ;)

I kid. But yes, great point. I think for the purpose of this write-up, let's leave it vague. I looked into the history of varnishes & sealants (because what am I if not obsessed with Google) and there are definitely ways to create natural varnishes and natural sealants. It seems feasible that these would exist in Idalos, especially those using tree resin. My only remaining ask would be to remove "creosote" as an example, because this was discovered in the early 1800s from wood tar. I think this would be too advanced for our Idalosian era.

Otherwise, everything looks great! Thanks for making those updates. I'll ping Malt so that he can have a look, and then hopefully we can get this posted in the wiki.

Cheers,
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Carpentry

Postby Faith » Fri Feb 16, 2018 10:30 pm

Rumour wrote:Congratulations on becoming in charge of Project Paint! ;)

Ohhhhhhhhh no...... :P

I kid. But yes, great point. I think for the purpose of this write-up, let's leave it vague. I looked into the history of varnishes & sealants (because what am I if not obsessed with Google) and there are definitely ways to create natural varnishes and natural sealants. It seems feasible that these would exist in Idalos, especially those using tree resin. My only remaining ask would be to remove "creosote" as an example, because this was discovered in the early 1800s from wood tar. I think this would be too advanced for our Idalosian era.

Done - where it was I've changed it to:
"Varnishes range from very thick to a light colour wash."

Otherwise, everything looks great! Thanks for making those updates. I'll ping Malt so that he can have a look, and then hopefully we can get this posted in the wiki.

Thank you so much!
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Carpentry

Postby Maltruism » Sun Feb 18, 2018 3:51 am

Well, I hate to rain on the parade.

Most of this is just my own feelings on some aspects presented here.
The hardest thing to justify about them is that I don't really have another option.
But here we go:

Being a guitarist, I have a sort of puritanical resistance to considering the work of a luthier to being a category of Carpentry.
We have "Ship Building" as a separate skill. I think the delicacy of the work of crafting and shaping wood to create and/or enhance the acoustic traits of a wooden instrument is at least the equal of that, though the wood-shaping needs of a shipwright are on a much larger scale.

But there is still the steaming and bending, soaking and treating, clamping and drying, as well as the actual construction of the shaping die to hold the bent wood in its shape as it dries, to consider. Still I can't deny the fact that I am sort of insisting on the generation of another skill that is unlikely to get much use. So I guess putting this as an aspect of carpentry is the only choice. :(

Okay, puritanical view of the-luthier's-skill-being-different-than-carpentry aside, I now have some views on the tech level.

You may want to include the "Tongue-in Groove" joint technique, as well as the "Dovetail". These are variations of the mortise-and-tenon concept, with the dovetail adding an element of the Half-lap as well. I would also strongly suggest some mention of dowels as the low-tech alternative to all these joining systems.

I think this is a more likely Idalos-tech level technique, as it does not really require any great deal of precision to make it fit. Rather than having to hand-carve these tongues and grooves with chisels, mallets and cutters, the edges to be joined both simply have holes drilled in them, which are then filled with dowels, which not only secure the hold while the glue dries, but add a permanent axis of strength to the joint. Essentially, the hole drilled into each edge is half as deep as the dowel is long.

Also, I'm not sure what you mean by a "lathe". Wood turning, at this stage of technology would not be the continuous, high-speed rotation of a lathe. What is powering this lathe? Is this being done with a kicked stone wheel like pottery? I suppose that would work. I have to admit, I still stand by my hand-cranked centrifuge, as an alchemical tool whose most high-tech aspect is the precision of the gears allowing for the ratio of spins-per-crank.

I suppose a lathe could work on a similar basis. But it would probably need to be pedalled to have the kind of inertia needed to plane wood. It would have be a fairly large gadget to accommodate the size of turned table legs, and the gears involved. making it cost quite a bit more than you've got on the price list suggestion entry.
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Carpentry

Postby Faith » Sun Feb 18, 2018 7:52 am

Maltruism wrote:Well, I hate to rain on the parade.

No worries! All feedback very very welcome!

Still I can't deny the fact that I am sort of insisting on the generation of another skill that is unlikely to get much use. So I guess putting this as an aspect of carpentry is the only choice. :(

Well, I can take out mention of instrument-making, if you'd like? We could add the luthier skill to the list. I see both sides, to be honest - and I guess I look at it in the opposite way, in that - if someone has shipbuilding but not carpentry, are you telling me they can't put together a good sturdy set of shelves? So, I suppose for me, ship building (I know it is a skill, just stating an opinion) and instrument making etc are specialisms of carpentry, in terms of game mechanic that way.

But! I am completely chilled out - will go with the flow and do as I'm told :P


You may want to include the "Tongue-in Groove" joint technique, as well as the "Dovetail". These are variations of the mortise-and-tenon concept, with the dovetail adding an element of the Half-lap as well. I would also strongly suggest some mention of dowels as the low-tech alternative to all these joining systems.

I tried not to include too many joint techniques, to give folks enough detail, but not too much. Tongue and Groove (which is what it's called over here, not in, apparently! This is an entirely British write up...... :lol: ) and Dovetail, as well as Dowels included! Thanks for that - they very much should be there!

Also, I'm not sure what you mean by a "lathe". Wood turning, at this stage of technology would not be the continuous, high-speed rotation of a lathe. What is powering this lathe?

Well, when I was researching this skill, I found that there were wood turning lathes in Ancient Egypt at roughly 1300 BCE. There is also a book on turning with a lathe circa: 1280 AD. There are examples, apparently (so I'm reliably informed by Google) of Roman era lathes also. So, I figure we're probably ok - they were powered either by another person turning the wheel mechanism, or by pedal / foot.

Is that ok? I can take it out if you'd rather and I'm not at all married to the prices - they were mostly plucked out of the ether. :) What would you like me to change them to?

Thanks for the feedback! Very useful stuff.
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